Молекулярная гастрономия для креативных шеф-поваров (англ. язык) - страница 104

Молекулярная гастрономия для креативных шеф-поваров (англ. язык)

inserted, as well as increasing the fat content, that reduces percieved tougness.

· Chemical – this is most often carried out through marinades. Marinading a meat before

cooking reduces subsequent cooking times.

There are three classes of marinade:

· Acids, like lemon juice, vinegar, wine or tomatoes, helps tenderise meat by starting to

denature the proteins, causing them to unwind. Since one of the aims of cooking is to

denature the meat proteins (which makes the meat more digestible) so marinading

first will reduce subsequent cooking times. However, marinades penetrate meat very

slowly, so the proteins in the outside of the meat, that are in direct contact with the

marinade, may start to coagulate, and as the bonds in the protein network start to

strengthen the meat juices may be forced out. This problem can to some extent be

prevented by injecting the marinade into the centre of the meat, using a cook’s


· Enzymes: some raw fruits contain protein-splitting enzymes (proteases), which act on

raw meat to tenderise it. They work in the same way as natural ageing by breaking

down and softening the muscle fibre and connective tissue (collagen), making the

meat less tough. Examples of these protein containing fruits include the pineapple, the

papaya, the paw paw, kiwifruits, or figs. All these enzymes work fairly slowly at room

temperature, but work very quickly between 60 and 70 C, so have most effect on

tenderising the meat at the beginning of the process of cooking the meat. These

enzymes penetrate the meat even slower than marinades, so often the outside of the

meat may become overly digested and tender while the inside of the meat remains

tough. Again, injecting these enzymes into the centre of the meat avoids this problem.

· Dairy: Dairy products such as buttermilk or yogurt are only mildly acidic, so do not

toughen the outer part of the meat in contact with the marinade in the way that the

strongly acidic marinades do. Additionally. it seems that the calcium in dairy products

activates enzymes in meat that break down proteins, tenderising the meat like ageing

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