crust, rather than the meats surface directly, which prevents the drying out of the meats surface that is
associated with the crust formation. Poking the meat with a fork before battering allows the egg and
flour mixture to penetrate the holes, better anchoring the sample to the grilled outer layer.
Batter is usually made of bread crumbs or flour, with egg. The batter will become hard and crusty as
the egg proteins coagulate, and the swollen starch granules release some starch that allows the batter
to remain stuck to the meat. The presence of breadcrumbs or flour increase the sugars that are
present in the food being fried, increasing the rate and diversity of the flavour-producing Maillard
Cooking in a solid
Grilling and sauteing:
When meat is grilled or sauted, the meat is heated by direct contact with the hot pan. This form of heat
transfer is known as conduction (or radiation if the heat source is hot enough to glow, ie produce light).
Heating meat by direct contact with a very hot solid is not as even a way of transferring heat as
immersing the meat in a very hot liquid (ie frying or boiling), so the part of the meat in direct contact
with the heat will heat up much more quickly than the other parts. In order to ensure a more even heat
transfer, the meat should be regularly turned during heating to more evenly transfer the heat.
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As soon as a piece of meat is added to a hot pan, the meats surface in contact with the pan will
undergo some rapid changes. The proteins will coagulate forming a crust, and the meat will start to
sizzle due to the rapid evaporation of water that occurs in the surface in contact with the pan. Once the
surface water has evaporated, temperatures at the meats surface can reach high enough that the
browning Maillard reactions can occur very quickly and the meats surface quickly browns and
develops many of the flavours associated with grilled meat.
However, the disadvantage of such high temperatures is that the meats surface may burn and