Молекулярная гастрономия для креативных шеф-поваров (англ. язык) - страница 117

Молекулярная гастрономия для креативных шеф-поваров (англ. язык)

At high temperatures

Cooking meat in ovens set at high temperatures allows immediate protein coagulation and water

evaporation, which forms the crispy skin, substantial browning and flavour production will take place

on the meats surface. Heat will be transferred more quickly to the centre of the piece of meat, which

will reach a higher temperature during cooking and may risk to dry out. The meat will cook more

quickly but therefore be more likely to overcook.

Maillard reactions will be more pronounced in a traditional oven (which has dry air) compared to a

steam oven (humid air), yet so will the rate with which the meat dries out.

The oven door should not be opened because the volatile aromatic molecules that are produced

during roasting will be released, so more aromatic molecules will diffuse from the meat by diffusion.

High temperature roasting is more suited to smaller cuts of meat, which will be cooked before they

have enough time to dry out. The oven should preferably be pre-heated. The meat then takes less

time to reach the required temperature, so cooking time is further reduced and more juice is

preserved.

A compromise?

The best compromise is to start the oven at a high temperature to encourage surface browning, and

then to finish the cooking at a lower temperature to cook the meat more slowly and prevent undesired

texture changes.

Steaming:

Steaming is a very efficient and quick way of transferring heat –...

ent undesired

texture changes.

Steaming:

Steaming is a very efficient and quick way of transferring heat – there is therefore a risk that the meat

will dry out very rapidly. It is thus only really suitable for thin tender cuts of meat that will cook quickly

at the centre before the outside has dried out too much. Thicker cuts to be steamed are often wrapped

in leaves to protect the surface from cooking so quickly.

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Pressure cooking:

In pressure cookers, water boils at approximately 130 °C. This greatly increases heat transfer, and

therefore cooking time, and allows the collagen-gelatine conversion to occur much more rapidly.

Cooking times are much shorter, and this easily leads to over-cooking. Meat cooked in a pressure

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