saturate the molecule
Hydrophilic – something that likes to interact with water molecules
Hydrophobic – something that does not like to interact with water molecules and prefers to interact
with molecules of fat
Ionic bonding – a bond formed between two oppositely charged ions
Ion – an atom or molecule that has been charged by the addition or removal of an electron
Lecithin - a fatty substances made of glycerol, fatty acids, phosphoric acid and choline. Because it
contains both hydrophilic and hydrophobic parts, it is often used in cooking as a emulsifier.
Liquid – the state of a substance when particles are free to move but move slowly, and do not exist in
a fixed arrangement
Maillard reaction - a very important chemical reaction that occurs between proteins or amino acids,
and sugars. It commonly occurs during cooking and is responsible for producing the characteristic
colour, smell and taste compounds associated with bread crust, beer and cooked meat.
Molecule – a collection of one or more atoms joined together by sharing electrons (a covalent bond)
Native - the structure a molecule adopts in its natural environment eg the structure of egg proteins in a
Organism - plants, animals, and other forms of life that are made up of complex and interconnected
systems of cells and tissue.
Osmosis – the diffusion of water molecules from dilute areas to more concentrated areas over a semipermeable
Oxidation – the loss of electrons from an atom or molecule
Pectin - pectin is composed of chains of modified sugar molecules. It is abundant in many fruits, and
enables jams to set.
pH – an indication of the acidity, or number of free ions present in a solution
Pressure – the number of molecules per unit area
Protein - a large macromolecule composed of chains of amino acids, which usually adopt a threedimensional
structure. Proteins include the albumines, the globulines, enzymes and many more.
Radiation – the transmission of a wave from a source (either in the form of light, heat, microwaves,