Молекулярная гастрономия для креативных шеф-поваров (англ. язык) - страница 136

Молекулярная гастрономия для креативных шеф-поваров (англ. язык)

Preserving vegetables

Freezing

Freezing fruits and vegetables involves freezing the water contained in the cells. When the water

freezes, it forms ice crystals, which can puncture the cell walls and cause vegetables to lose some

water. The texture of the thawed produce will therefore be much softer than when it is raw.

It is often therefore recommended that raw frozen fruits are eaten before they have completely

thawed.

In any case, the vegetable should frozen quickly. When produce is frozen quickly, it forms a large

number of small ice crystals, rather than fewer larger ones. These ice crystals produce less cell wall

rupture so texture is better preserved after defrosting.

Freezing only slows down the enzyme responsible for rotting vegetables, which may eventually lead to

loss of nutrients and colour even while frozen. Vegetables should be rapidly blanched in boiling water

to kill these spoiling enzymes if it is to be frozen.

Canning

The other way to preserve vegetables is by canning them, where heat treatment is used to destroy the

spoiling enzymes. The treatment is much more effective.

Drying

Vegetables and fruits can also be preserved by drying them, to reduce the cells water content to such

an extent that bacteria can no longer grow.

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Unlike canned vegetables, dried vegetables are indigestible, and need to be cooked to re-introduce

the water that had been lost (i.e. rehydrate them).

The...

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Unlike canned vegetables, dried vegetables are indigestible, and need to be cooked to re-introduce

the water that had been lost (i.e. rehydrate them).

The water in which dried vegetables are cooked should never be salted – salt prevents so much water

from entering the dried vegetables by osmosis.

Cooking should be slow to ensure even cooking (rapid cooking at the beginning cooks the external

part to excess, making the outside too soft before the centre is even cooked).

Unlike for fresh vegetables, where cooking in alkaline conditions make the vegetables too soft, adding

bicarbonate of soda to the cooking water improves the softening of lentils by accelerating the pectin

breakdown. Equally acids like vinegar, lemon juice or tomatoes should not be added until the end of

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