Молекулярная гастрономия для креативных шеф-поваров (англ. язык) - страница 137

Молекулярная гастрономия для креативных шеф-поваров (англ. язык)

the cooking process – addition of acid greatly slows the cooking process. Cooked in very acidic

cooking water causes dried vegetables to remain crunchy and tough skinned despite a very long

cooking time.

Equally some tap water used for cooking dried vegetables disfavours the softening of the vegetable

because these tap water contains a significant quantity of calcium ions, which with their two positive

charges will link two pectin molecules, reinforcing their molecular cohesion, thus decreasing the ease

of softening.

Other ways of preserving vegetables

Vegetables can also be preserved by pickling them. Pickling also gives vegetables a slightly different

taste. Placing cut cabbage (to make sauercrout) or other vegetables to be pickled in a brine solution

prevents the development of certain pathogenic bacterias. However, some bacteria, (Leuconostoc.

mesenteroides, and later Leuconostoc plantarum) are unaffected and consume the sugar in the

vegetable giving off an acid called lactic acid. It is this acid that gives its characteristic taste to pickled

vegetables and conserves as well as dishes like sauercrout.

Digesting vegetables

Why are beans flatulents? Beans and peas contain the sugar raffinose, which is composed of a chain

of fructose, glucose and galactose molecules. Although glucose and fructose are readily decomposed

by digestive enzymes, galactose can not be degraded and it passes through to the large intestine still

undigested, where it is attacked by the stomach bacteria (mainly Escherichia coli) producing gases

(mainly hydrogen, carbon dioxide, and methane), which fill the stomach and cause flatulence.

How to eliminate the galactose?A good way to remove the galactose from vegetables is to allow them

to germinate. This operation mobilizes the enzyme galactosidase, as well as other enzymes which

destroys the galactose.

Soaking in warm water also helps to reduce the galactose – the heat from the water breaks down the

cell membranes of the beans, releasing the oligosaccharides so they can dissolve into the soaking

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