making cakes and biscuits where strong dough is not desired.
Most flour that is sold commercially is called “all-purpose flour” and contains a mixture of the two
types. If the same mass of different types of flours (eg whole wheat flour, bread flour, all-purpose flour,
pastry flour, or gluten flour) is mixed with a measured quantity of water, and then each mixture is
kneaded to form a soft, rubbery ball of dough, rinsing constantly until the water runs clear, the size of
the resulting ball will reflect the initial protein content of the flour (since all the other components will
have been removed while rinsing).
Effect of heat: Heating this network strengthens and toughens this network, which occurs when baking
cakes or cooking gniocchi and pasta.
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More about culinary ingredients: Fish
Since fish float in water they do not need as many muscles to support themselves as animals. Their
muscles are shorter and thinner than those of land animals. As well as having very short muscle
fibres, the connective tissue is thinner and the arrangement of the connective tissue holding the
muscle fibres together is much more delicate than the collagen arrangement in meat. Fish is therefore
in general much less tough than meat and is often eaten raw.
As the fish cooks, the fish proteins in the inside of muscular fibres start to coagulate, and flesh
becomes opaque. The delicate connective tissue holding the muscle fibres rapidly breaks up, which
means unlike for some cuts of meat, long cooking times are not required to dissolve all the collagen.
Furthermore, with a long cooking time, eventually all of the collagen will be dissolved, and the muscle
fibres will have little to hold them together and the muscle tissues begin to separate. That’s why
cooked fish often falls apart, and is often described as “flaky”.
Therefore, fish should be cooked at as high a temperature as possible, to cook the fish quickly and
keep cooking times as short as possible. Short cooking times prevent the flesh from drying out due to