All that is actually needed to make a stable emulsion therefore is a fat source, a water source, a
source of tensioactive molecules, and a careful preparation. The most common source of fat in kitchen
emulsions is oil and butter, but cheese or fois gras could be used instead. The water source that is
usually added is vinegar or stock, but any aqueous liquid including tea, coffee, orange juice could be
added. The source of tensioactive molecules is usually supplied by adding egg yolks or gelatine, but
any phosholipid or denatured protein could act as an emulsifier. This opens up the possibility of
forming an incredibly large number of different emulsions.
New denatured protein based emulsions
Most stocks containing gelatine are relatively strongly flavoured. This limits the use of stock in
emulsions, especially in sweet emulsions. However, instead of gelatine containing stock, any gelatinebased
jelly (such as a mint jelly often served with roast lamb) can be rapidly converted into a stable
emulsion by simply melting the jelly, and slowly adding oil or melted butter until the desired texture is
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Alternatively, pure gelatine, usually sold in sheet form, can be added to an emulsion to stabilize it,
without imparting a “meaty” taste. For example, cognac (for a source of water) can be mixed with
melted butter (for the fat source) and a sheet of gelatine to make a stable and creamy and smooth
sauce, which could be served with, for example, a duck breast.
Denatured egg white proteins:
Other denatured proteins can be used as emulsifiers, and this the basis of egg-yolk free mayonnaises.
The egg yolks are replaced by egg whites - the proteins from egg whites can replace the egg yolk
phospholipids to make a very stable sort of mayonnaise. To make such a mayonnaise, vinegar and
seasoning are added to egg whites, and the mixture is whisked while oil is gradually added. The
combination of the acid provided by the vinegar and the mechanical agitation from whisking, will cause
the egg white proteins to denature, and to expose both their hydrophobic and their hydrophilic parts,
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