the resulting dough to become very tough. Therefore a very low protein flour is used when preparing
The water content in puff pastry is also more elevated than in shortcrust pastry.
As the pastry is cooked, the butter will melt, and the water in the dough layers will evaporate with the
heat and any incorporated gases will expand, “puffing” the pastry up to about 8 times its volume.
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The pastry used to make eclairs has an even higher quantity of water in its original dough.
The significant evaporation of water that occurs at the bottom of the eclair which is in contact with the
very hot oven causes a significant rising and expanding of the whole eclair, producing its associated
puffed up structure.
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What we make from culinary ingredients: Pasta
Pasta, like bread, is basically made from a mixture of flour and water (a dough), Pasta dough is much
firmer than other dough due to its much lower water content (only about 25% compared to breads
40%). Fairly often eggs or egg yolks may be added to the dough with a subsequent reduction in water
This dough is then moulded into the desired shape (sheets or ribbons), and either cooked and eaten
straight away or dried (reducing the water content to about 10%). Pasta is inedible raw and needs to
be cooked in order to gelatinise the starch in the flour and make it digestible.
During cooking, the starch granules from the flour swell as they absorb water, and the pasta will
increase in size.
As the heat increase, the flour proteins will denature and coagulate, to form an insoluble network of
proteins that surrounds the starch, keeping the pastas shape and preventing the starch from leaking
into cooking water during boiling. If eggs are present in the dough, the egg proteins will also coagulate
with heat and contribute to the surrounding network, strengthening it.
To make egg-free pasta, flour with a high gluten content (like durum wheat flour), and the dough is