creamy emulsion, with similar proportions to cream. The fats are held in the emulsion by their
phospholipids membranes. If this emulsion is then placed on a bed of ice and the mixture whisked in a
similar way to whipping cream, a light and airy cheese mousse can be obtained, where the air bubbles
are stabilised by a network of fat molecules. These “foamed cheese” have been introduced by H. This
under the name “cheese Chantilly”.
Butter, like milk and cream, is composed essentially of water and fat. In butter, the fat content is much
greater than the water content (fat content should be higher than 82 %). So, unlike in butter and
cream, where the fat phase is suspended in the water phase, in butter the water droplets, which are in
the minority, are dispersed in the fat phase.
However butter is not as simple as an emulsion, because at any temperature between -10°C and
+50°C, part of butter is solidified and forms a network in which the reversed emulsion is.
Preferably, butter should be described by the formula (W/O)/S, where W refers to water droplets
dispersed in the overall structure, O is the liquid fraction of fat, and S is the solid part of fat.
Butter is produced from mechanically stirring cream. Often, the cream is first cooled for a relatively
long period of time to convert some of the fat present in the fat globules into solid crystals. The
formation of these fat crystals tends to stick into and weaken the globule membranes, which will cause
them to break more easily when the cream is subsequently churned.
When the cream is agitated, the weakened fat droplets are broken up by the stirring and they release
some fat contained. These damaged droplets will tend to stick together by interactions between their
unprotected and now exposed fat contents. When the bundles of growing fat have reached the desired
size, it is removed from the left over water and the butter is formed.
Butter has a much more complicated arrangement of its water and fat molecules than milk or cream.