molecules that give flavour to the product.
Being made of fat, it can be mixed with butter. Because it contains sugar, which is soluble in water, it
can be mixed with water. The fibres stay unmodified, in preparing both mixtures as do the flavour
These flavour molecules are obtained through roasting and fermentation, just like those obtained
when roasting coffee or meat. Hence the colour and the flavour of chocolate.
I - 2 (of 17)
1. salt (S) dissolves into water (W)
2. salt (S) does not dissolve into oil (O)
3. oil (O) does not dissolve into water (W)
4. water evaporates at every temperature, but boils at 100°C
5. most food contain primarily water (or another fluid)
6. food with no fluid is hard (generally)
7. some proteins (eggs, meat, fish) coagulate
8. collagen dissolves into water when heated to more than 55°C
9. most food are disperse systems
10. some chemical processes (Maillard, Strecker, oxidations…) generate new flavours.
Ten easy sentences! Let’s consider on one example, pastry making, how these ideas can be put into
French pastry chefs usually distinguish puff pastry, on one hand, and sablee or brisee pastry on the
other hand. Let’s focus here on the last two. A survey of classical French recipes of brisee pastry or
sable pastry show that, according to books, either the ingredients make the difference, or the
processes, but all this is not very clear, because various authors contradict themselves. Only the result
can make all pastry makers agree: sablee pastry is more “sandy” than brisee pastry.
In all recipes of brisee pastry and sablee pastry, dough is made from butter (b), flour (f) and water (w)
(plus some minor ingredients, such as salt, that play an important role for flavour, but not for dough
making). There are six possibilities of mixing: bfw, bwf, wfb, wbf, fwb, fbw. But looking at the results
shows that only two possibilities are different: (b+f)+w, and (f+w)+b. Why?
The answer is given in the experiment that was proposed as early as 1754 by the Italian chemist