Молекулярная гастрономия для креативных шеф-поваров (англ. язык) - страница 235

Молекулярная гастрономия для креативных шеф-поваров (англ. язык)

to be looked at.

Some years ago, we proposed to distinguish when food is put in contact with a hot solid, a hot liquid, a

hot gas, when it is heated by radiation or when it is being transformed by others processes. The liquids

can be oil or water solution, at various temperatures: for example, poaching fish means cooking meat

fish in a simmering aqueous solution, i.e. at a temperature lower than 100°C. Cooking in air can be

done in many different ways: in very hot dry air, meat is “roasted”; in mildly hot air, it is smoked, or

dried; in vapour, it is vapour cooked. For very long, infrared radiations were the only radiations used in

cooking, but, after Wold War Two, cooks began using also microwaves, or other electromagnetic

radiations, as these radiations deposits energy when absorbed by food.

There are other possibilities than the traditional ones. Cooks did not use much “pressure cooking”

(applying pressures of many thousands of atmospheres), and did not use much “chemical cookings”,

using acids (except in cebiche and other similar processes), alkalis (except in one century old eggs),


Moreover, these “simple processes” can be applied one after another. Assuming that we use 12 kinds

of simple processes, a table of 12 by 12, i.e. 144 cells can be constructed to describe “double

processes” such as braising, where the first process is cooking in very hot air, and the second process

is cooking in a liquid. A large number of these cells were never explored: they are a guide to culinary


We eat only disperse systems

Let’s now consider culinary activities in general, and not only cooking. It is probably very important to

recognize that we do not eat liquids (we drink them) or pure solids (they are too hard): food is

generally what are called disperse systems, whose simplest possibilities are given in the following


I - 9 (of 17)

Line dispersed into


Gas Liquid Solid


(continuous phase)

Gas Liquid aerosol

(liquid dispersed into a


Solid aerosol

(solid dispersed into a

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