about one cube meter of whipped egg white, if water were in excess. And the experiment of adding
water to whipped egg white shows that much more than 250 mL of foam can be made.
Of course, the stability of the foam is then reduced, as the viscosity of the continuous, water, phase, is
lowered. However, if sugar is added during whipping, some very light meringues can be made. We
called them “wind crystals”.ix
_ In the same way, the maximum volume of water that can be added to one egg, which is jellified by
heat, can easily be calculated. One possibility, for this calculation, is using the model of gelatine gels,
where the minimum quantity of gelatine is about 1%. In eggs, the jellifying agents are proteins, 10% in
the white and 15 % in the yolk. It can be easily calculated, then, that one egg can jellify one litre of
water… which is what experiments show.
The gels that are formed are then very soft, but also the taste of the jellified solution is better
perceived, as it is well known that polymers can bind to hydrophobic (odorant) molecules, through
hydrophobic parts; if the content of polymer is reduced, the odorant molecules are more easily
liberated. We call these gels “royales at the limit”, because they are generalization of the classical
_ Breads are swollen spheres only if some gluten is present. And this is why Triticum flour has an
advantage over other kind of flours. In particular, when bakers want to make chestnut bread, they
have to mix chestnut flour to grain flour, which reduces the delicate flavour of chestnut.
Why not extracting gluten from grain, and adding it to chestnut flour, to obtain pure chestnut bread?
_ Improving souffles is easy, when it is measured that a 300 grams souffle can loose up to 10 grams
during cooking. As this loss is due to water evaporation, it is easy to calculate that 300 grams souffles
could be about 10 litres big after cooking if all the vapour produced were kept.
How? First the vapour has to be produced in the bottom of the souffle, which explain that the souffles