should be heated by the bottom of the ramekin. Then a vapour proof crust has to be done on the top
of the souffle (by grilling, after adding some ingredients that promotes crust formation). And finally the
egg whites should be very firm, as it was demonstrated that the firmness of the foam makes bigger
_ Vegetables are generally considered to have an interesting flavour that should be kept, by vapour
cooking or by boiling. This restricts the flavour of vegetables to a limited number of tastes and
prevents culinary inventivity. What could we do?
Knowing that many vegetables contain a lot of sugars, either reducing or non reducing sugars, the
idea behind “demi glaces of vegetables” it to add proteins or amino acids to vegetables during
cooking, in order to induce Maillard processes, that give more original tastes. In particular, vegetables
cooked for more than 30 minutes at water boiling temperature with gelatine give a very interesting
taste. Using other proteins, and also fats (mainly phospholipids, as it was demonstrated that this
category of fat molecules can participate to the later stages of Maillard processes), lead to other
_ Wines and stocks are paradoxical liquids, as they have both taste and odour, and are however
mainly composed of water. As odorant molecules should be hydrophobic, in order to escape from the
aqueous phase and stimulate the nose receptor, there is the question of...
aqueous phase and stimulate the nose receptor, there is the question of why these molecules are into
water. Of course we perfectly know that molecules are seldom completely hydrophobic or hydrophilic,
so that they can distribute between air and the solvent.
However oil and water are not the only edible solvents, as ethanol can also be used. Hence the
experiment of shaking any hydrophobic product (1-octen-3-ol, oil, beta ionone…) with ethanol; when
this mixture is poured into water, ethanol dissolution in water liberates tiny droplets of the hydrophobic
compounds, dispersed into water. This “Pastis effect” generates a very stable system, where odorant