molecules are dispersed in water.xiii
_ It is well known in chemistry laboratories that one can separate a mixture using two non mixing
solvents. A mixture of compounds dissolved initially in one of the two solvent distributes by shaking
according to the distribution coefficient. This idea can be usefully applied in the kitchen. First the
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number of known flavours can be multiplied by two using oil and water, in a can, where one ground
ingredient (carrots, onions, cinnamon…) is put: the oil phase and the water phase in contact with the
ingredient dissolve primarily, respectively the hydrophobic and hydrophilic compounds of the
Another application of this system is for reduction of wine or other liquids. Reductions are frequently
used for sauces in the kitchen, but it is easy to smell that a lot of flavour molecules during the process.
It was proposed to shake the liquid with oil first, in order to dissolve into oil the most hydrophobic
compounds, among which are the odorant molecules, and then boil the liquid, adding finally back the
_ Let us finally see how some recent modelling leads to culinary innovation. Using the CDS
formalism, we looked to the hundreds of classical sauces given by the French official text book of
cookingxiv and also by other important books on sauces.xvxvi These sauces were studied using optical
microscopy, and the complete formulas were found. In many cases, the...
microscopy, and the complete formulas were found. In many cases, the formula could be simplified,
using assumptions such as E1/S2 + E2/S2 = E/S. This modelling lead to the discovery that all the
French classical sauces belong to 23 groups only: E, H, E/S, H/E, S/E, (H+S)/E, (E/S)/E, H + (E/S),
(G+H)/E, (G+H+S)/E, (H+(E/S))/E, (S+(E/S))/E, ((E+S)/H)/S, (H+S+(E/S))/E, ((E/S)+(EES))/E, (H +
(E/S)/E)/S, ((H+(E/S))/E)/S, (H /E) + ((G+H)/E), (H+(E/S)+(EES))/E, (S + (E/S)+(EES))/E,
(((E/S)+(EES))/E)/S, (H+S+(E/S)+(EES))/E, (H+S+((G+H)/E))/E.
Strangely this list does not include such systems as simple as (G+(W/S))/W, that could be made, for
example, by mixing whipped egg white in a “veloute”, i.e. a sauce obtained by cooking a roux (butter