and the harder it will be to disrupt. This is because the unbranched amylose molecules can bond
together in a much more compact fashion.
Effect of heat and pH:
Like all large molecules, the starches are broken down into their constituent units (the glucose
molecules) by strong heat and acid.
However, as already mentioned, the starches found in natural food sources are actually located in
small compartments known as starch granules inside the plant cells. These granules act to some
extent to protect the starch from degradation and damage. However, the starch needs to be released
from these granules before it can act as a thickener, and this process requires heat. Once the starch
has been released from these granules, it can be broken down by extreme conditions such as heat or
acid in the same way as most other biological molecules.
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of Molecular Gastronomy
in a three stars restaurant.
Relations science / culinary art.
Antoine MATHURIN, Audrey TARDIEU, Herve THIS
INRA Group of Molecular Gastronomy, Paris
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I. Application of Molecular Gastronomy in the kitchen
Many cooks (Pierre Gagnaire, Paris / London / Tokyo; Ferran Adria, Rosas; Heston Blumenthal,
London; Emile Jung, Strasbourg; and others…) look ceaselessly for new recipes and for new techniques.
Being the science that studies cooking (and more) from a chemical and physical point of view, Molecular
Gastronomy produces new knowledge on this activity, and, henceforth, can have educational and
technological applications in the kitchen.
In particular scientific knowledge can be applied in the three following fields: culinary tools,
culinary ingredients and culinary methods. As a consequence, technological transfer from Molecular
Gastronomy to the chefs enriches the culinary practice and lead to new dishes.
A collaboration between the INRA Group of Molecular Gastronomy and Pierre Gagnaire's
restaurants (Rue Balzac, Paris; Gaya, Paris ; Sketch, London, Pierre Gagnaire in Tokyo, Tokyo) has
been established for 1998: ideas from Molecular Gastronomy are given to the kitchen team, on a monthly