Молекулярная гастрономия для креативных шеф-поваров (англ. язык) - страница 69

Молекулярная гастрономия для креативных шеф-поваров (англ. язык)

up to the restaurant.

III.11.6. Other suggestions openings, ideas, applications of the technology :

The behaviour of these gels and the other thick sauces could be used to set them on a hot plate,

or with hot ingredients.

_

_

III.12. Sizing of meat by the transglutaminase enzyme:

III.12.1 Objective:

Using transglutaminase enzyme can change the consistency of gels. It should be firmer and thus

it should give a crunchy sensation in mouth.

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The aim of this test is to be able to stick some fragments of meat between them, for example in

the case of terrines.

III.12.2. Introduction:

III.12.2.1. Properties of the transglutaminase enzyme:

Transglutaminase is an intracellular ubiquitary enzyme, which catalyzes covalent links between

proteins. This enzyme is a specific catalyst for proteins that are glutamic group donorsxxiii.

This enzyme catalyses the formation of covalent links between an amino group of a protein and

an amino goup of a peptide from the glutamine. For example, this enzyme contributes to the coagulation

and these links are irreversible xxiv.

III.12.2.2. Use in food industries:

Transglutaminase enzymes are now produced by industries and they are used in numerous

industrial processes, in particular the food alterations of meat-based products (ham for example) and fishbased

products (surimi for example). The properties of these texture agents and binder agents allow to

use them instead other...

roducts (ham for example) and fishbased

products (surimi for example). The properties of these texture agents and binder agents allow to

use them instead other gelling agents or polyphosphates.

III.12.2.3. Example of a commercial product:

The transglutaminase enzyme is sold as a powder. It can be use either directly as a powder, or in

solution. Ajinomoto Inc, represented in Europe by Unipex Inc, is a supplier and a user of a type of this

enzyme: Activated (produced by fermentation of Streptoverticillium mobaraense).

It takes place in the processes of food alterations of meat-based products according to the

following reactions:

Acyl transfer :

NH2

O

NH2

O

HO

glutamin

H2N R

NH2

O

N

O

HO

H

+ R

Polymerisation reaction :

NH2

O

NH2

O

HO

glutamin

H2N Lys

NH2

O

N

O

HO

H

+ Lys

Reaction of amide hydrolysis:

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