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Молекулярная гастрономия для креативных шеф-поваров (англ. язык) - страница 206

Молекулярная гастрономия для креативных шеф-поваров (англ. язык)

the storage parts of the plant. About 80 % of a potato is starch, and therefore potato cells are very

densely concentrated in starch granules. On cooking in water, these starch granules take up water

and swell, causing the potato to increase in volume. As the starch granules gelatinise, the potato

becomes digestible. Raw potatoes are unique in being one of the few vegetables that cannot be eaten

raw – their high quantity of ungelatinised starch in their raw state can not be digested easily be the

bodies digestive enzyme amylase. Also, because of its high starch content, potatoes tend to become

dry, tough and less digestible. This is because the network of starch molecules becomes stronger and

tougher over time, and this tends to squeeze water out of the network.

Different potato varieties differ in particular in their overall starch contents, and this is why different

potato varieties are used for different food preparations. Potatoes with a low starch content are known

as “waxy”, and include red and white potatoes. The potatoes do not absorb as much liquid during

cooking, and therefore the potato structure is less affected and the potato hold its shape much better.

They are therefore the preferred choice in gratins, boiled potatoes and potato salad, where the potato

needs to keep its shape.

“Floury” potatoes, however, have a much higher starch content. The starch granules in their cells

therefore absorb much more water, and cell structure is much more likely to be disrupted, producing a

fluffy texture. These potatoes are therefore the best choice for mashing, baking or frying, where a

softer texture is desired.

Cooking techniques

Mashing potatoes

On top of the damage caused to the cells on cooking, when the potato is mashed or riced, the cells

are broken open even more, releasing more starch, which acts to thicken the added liquid (usually

milk) which makes the potatoes creamy and smooth. If waxy potatoes were used, much less starch

would be released during mashing to thicken the liquid, to the same smooth texture can not be

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