Молекулярная гастрономия для креативных шеф-поваров (англ. язык) - страница 249

Молекулярная гастрономия для креативных шеф-поваров (англ. язык)

molecules are dispersed in water.xiii

_ It is well known in chemistry laboratories that one can separate a mixture using two non mixing

solvents. A mixture of compounds dissolved initially in one of the two solvent distributes by shaking

according to the distribution coefficient. This idea can be usefully applied in the kitchen. First the

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number of known flavours can be multiplied by two using oil and water, in a can, where one ground

ingredient (carrots, onions, cinnamon…) is put: the oil phase and the water phase in contact with the

ingredient dissolve primarily, respectively the hydrophobic and hydrophilic compounds of the

ingredient used.

Another application of this system is for reduction of wine or other liquids. Reductions are frequently

used for sauces in the kitchen, but it is easy to smell that a lot of flavour molecules during the process.

It was proposed to shake the liquid with oil first, in order to dissolve into oil the most hydrophobic

compounds, among which are the odorant molecules, and then boil the liquid, adding finally back the


_ Let us finally see how some recent modelling leads to culinary innovation. Using the CDS

formalism, we looked to the hundreds of classical sauces given by the French official text book of

cookingxiv and also by other important books on sauces.xvxvi These sauces were studied using optical

microscopy, and the complete formulas were found. In many cases, the formula could be simplified,

using assumptions such as E1/S2 + E2/S2 = E/S. This modelling lead to the discovery that all the

French classical sauces belong to 23 groups only: E, H, E/S, H/E, S/E, (H+S)/E, (E/S)/E, H + (E/S),

(G+H)/E, (G+H+S)/E, (H+(E/S))/E, (S+(E/S))/E, ((E+S)/H)/S, (H+S+(E/S))/E, ((E/S)+(EES))/E, (H +

(E/S)/E)/S, ((H+(E/S))/E)/S, (H /E) + ((G+H)/E), (H+(E/S)+(EES))/E, (S + (E/S)+(EES))/E,

(((E/S)+(EES))/E)/S, (H+S+(E/S)+(EES))/E, (H+S+((G+H)/E))/E.

Strangely this list does not include such systems as simple as (G+(W/S))/W, that could be made, for

example, by mixing whipped egg white in a “veloute”, i.e. a sauce obtained by cooking a roux (butter

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