Молекулярная гастрономия для креативных шеф-поваров (англ. язык) - страница 3

Молекулярная гастрономия для креативных шеф-поваров (англ. язык)

In particular, chemistry is not grilling steaks, but trying to understand what goes on when steaks are

grilled. And it is not true either that cooking is chemical analysis: chemical analysis tries to understand

the chemical composition of food, it does not cook food. Making and studying are different jobs.

More generally, craft, technology and science are different activities, with different objectives.

However, scientific knowledge is useful, because it remains true that the phenomena involved in the

kitchen (browning of the steak during cooking, thickening of the mayonnaise sauce during making,

etc.) are chemical and physical transformations. As science is invited in the culinary curriculum, let’s

first look for the main phenomena that have to be considered. Ten only should probably be taught in

all culinary schools:

V/II - 1 (of 3)

What we make from culinary ingredients: Bread and other flour water mixtures

General overview

Many dishes prepared in the kitchen are made of a basic mixture of flour and water, known in cookery

as dough. Often in cooking this basic dough is mixed with other ingredients such as a raising agents,

eggs, sugar, and milk to make a large range of diverse products. These include breads, cakes, pastas

and quiches. Each of these products has a different ratio of flour and water, and is mixed with one or

several other agents to give all these products their associated textures on cooking.

Product % water % flour Other products

Bread 35 55 Salt, yeast

Cakes 20 25 Butter, eggs, sugar

Pasta 20 75 Eggs

Pastry 15 50 Butter

When the dough is cooked, the starch granules in the flour will swell, the flour proteins will coagulate,

and the resulting dough will gradually become hard as the amount of free water is reduced. Details for

the preparation and cooking process are given the below for making bread; the other introduced types

of dough are discussed in the following sections.

Bread is made from mixing flour, water, yeast and a little salt. Yeast is a living organism, made up of

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