Молекулярная гастрономия для креативных шеф-поваров (англ. язык) - страница 4

Молекулярная гастрономия для креативных шеф-поваров (англ. язык)

only a single cell, which lies “asleep” until it comes into contact with warm water. Once “woken up” with

heat and water, the yeast begins to feed on any sugar it can find, releasing CO2. As it feeds on the

sugar, it is provided with energy which allows it to grow. Yeast grows by dividing its cell membrane

and all its cell contents evenly in two to form two new cells.


When preparing bread, the flour is mixed with the water, salt and yeast to form a dough. The first

process of making bread involves kneading this dough until it becomes smooth and stretchy, due to

the gluten proteins present in the flour.

The gluten proteins:

This initial kneading step helps unwind the gliadin and glutenin proteins by breaking their hydrogen

bonds and disulphide bridges, which then line up to form and develop the strong gluten network.

Some intramolecular loops that are preserved in the proteins give the dough its elasticity. The strong

and elastic dough produced is able both to trap the air bubbles without breaking due to its strength

and to allow the bubbles to expand during cooking due to their elasticity. The addition of salt helps the

protein network by using its charged ions to favour the attraction of the proteins to each other and

therefore the formation of a protein-protein network.

The other proteins:

As well as the gluten forming proteins – flour also contains other proteins that play in important role

during the kneading step. These include the enzymes, and most specifically it is the amylases have a

particularly important role in bread making. These enzymes use the water present in the dough to

attack both the amylose and amylopectic molecules located in the starch granules in the flour at

random points in their structure to break them up into molecules of maltose (a simple sugar molecule

made of two glucose molecules chemically joined together). These molecules will later be used by the

yeast to respire, during a process called fermentation. It is for this reason that flour should always be

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