Молекулярная гастрономия для креативных шеф-поваров (англ. язык) - страница 5

Молекулярная гастрономия для креативных шеф-поваров (англ. язык)

kept dry, or the enzymes will start to react with the starch in the flour during storage using water

vapour from the air, degrading the starch. The amylases work fastest at warmer temperatures, which

is why warm water is usually added to the original dough rather than cold.


The addition of salt promotes the activity of the flour enzymes the amylases but decreases activity of

the proteases present in flour – which would otherwise hydrolyse the flour proteins and produce a

weak dough.

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After adequate kneading, the dough is placed in a bowl, which is covered and left for several hours

(this is called fermentation). This allows the dough to swell as the yeast respires, producing the gas

CO2. The bubbles do not escape but remain stably incorporated in the dough. The air bubbles are

trapped in the strong protein network.

The yeast is not only responsible for the production of gas bubbles during this time, but also the

flavours and smells that accompany yeast respiration.

During the fermentation, the yeasts use its own enzymes, the maltases, to degrade the maltose

produced by the flours amylases into glucose molecules. It is these glucose molecules directly that are

then converted into carbon dioxide (which helps the bread rise), ethanol (which gives bread its taste),

and diverse aldehydes, ketones, diacetyl, and other alcohols (which help contribute to the breads


C6H12O6----------------> 2 CO2 (g) + 2 C2H5 OH

This is also how the alcohol in beer and other alcoholic drinks as produced.

Fermentation is most effective at temperatures of 27 °C. Although higher temperatures will make the

yeast grow faster and produce more gas, which would increase dough volume, the flavour produced is

best at this lower temperature.

Second kneading step

After fermentation, there is a second kneading step. This step is not so much to strengthen the gluten,

but the constant folding over of the dough during kneading allows the incorporation of air into the

mixture, and ensures that it is distributed evenly.

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