Молекулярная гастрономия для креативных шеф-поваров (англ. язык) - страница 7

Молекулярная гастрономия для креативных шеф-поваров (англ. язык)

High temperatures strengthen the network that has formed between the proteins during kneading, and

the network becomes more and more rigid. Simultaneously, the starch in the starch granules

gelatinise, taking up water, and this effect, combined with the level of water evaporation causes the

dough to start to harden.

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Diagram showing the starch granules (grey) swelling, while the proteins form a network around the

bubbles of gas (white)

Further cooking

Crust formation:

Temperatures at the breads surface increase faster than inside the bread. This forms a dry and hard

crust, which prevents any gases from escaping, maximising swelling of the dough. Therefore bread is

often cooked in a very hot oven to initiate the solidification of the crust, which reduces subsequent gas

escape and a decrease in bread volume. Dishes such as quiches are also cooked at a high

temperature to ensure this impermeable crust on the surface to prevent significant amounts of water

vapour from escaping. This is so that sufficient water vapour is still there at the end of cooking to

condense, and ensure that the quiche remains tender on cooling.

Texture changes:

As the gases, which are unable to escape, continue to expand, the pressure inside the dough

increases. This increase in pressure causes some of the protein network to be broken, which allows

the gas bubbles to interconnect with each other.

Flavour production:

As temperatures at the surface exceed 100 °C, Maillard reactions begin to occur between the reducing

sugars and the amines in the crust, producing the noticeable colour and taste of bread. In the

presence of milk, these Maillard reactions are even more favourable. Milk contains the sugar lactose,

which, unlike maltose, can not be broken down and used as a food source by the yeast, so its

inclusion in the original dough provides an increased total sugar concentration available for Maillard

reactions, improving the breads brown colour and the taste.


Cooking bread at too high a temperature may cause the protein network to become too rigid, due to

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