Молекулярная гастрономия для креативных шеф-поваров (англ. язык) - страница 107

Молекулярная гастрономия для креативных шеф-поваров (англ. язык)

and tougher to chew than a steak cooked rare.

III/II - 4 (of 9)

Tenderizing the inside without loosing juices: Long low temperature cooking:

So in order to keep meat moist, juicy and tender it should be cooked at temperatures no hotter than 65

C (at which temperature strong coagulation occurs), which takes a very long time. However, cooking

at this temperature has various drawbacks:

1) Temperatures of approximately 70°C need to be reached in order for all the bacteria in meat

that can cause human disease to be destroyed. Usually, if the piece of meat being cooked is

whole, this is less of a problem, because the bacteria will only be located to the surface of the

meat, and temperatures are highest on the meats surface during cooking. However, for

minced meat, the risk is greater, and dishes based with minced meat should be well cooked to

at least 70°C throughout.

2) As mentioned above, many tough cuts of meat contain large amounts of the tough molecule

collagen. The collagen in the elastic tissues will start to dissolve and from gelatine when the

meat is cooked to above 70°C. After collagen break down, the muscle fibres are much more

easily torn apart while chewing, and the meat will appear tender. Also, the meat needs to be

heated for a long time at this temperature in order to dissolve all the collagen.

3) The Maillard reactions responsible to many of the desired flavours and smells of cooked meat

do not start to occur until temperatures over 50°C are reached. The Maillard reaction involves

a large number of reactions between the amino acids from denatured proteins with the sugars

also present in meat. Molecules are rearranged, and new molecules are formed. These

reactions can produce many different new molecules - meat contains about 20 different amino

acids, and several different sugars, so the number of possible combinations is immense. The

new molecules formed can either break down to form yet more new compounds, or react

further with each other to produce other molecules, or even react with other meat components

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