cooker will become very dry, due to very high temperatures, and only really fatty cuts should be used
(the fat deposits slightly reduce the perceived dryness).
Cooking using radiations:
Cooking meat in a microwave impart energy to the water molecules of food. As this molecular motion
means heat, microwave cooking heats water in food ; and the water of the food heats the other
molecules of food.
As almost all the energy given to the oven is transferred to the food, this process is very fast… and
results sometimes in a large fluid loss and very dry meat.
No Maillard reactions can occur noticeably, so the characteristic flavours and tastes are not generated.
The meat should be browned before to get coloration.
In summary, small tender pieces of meat should be cooked at a high temperature for a short time to
maximise browning and flavour producing reactions and to reduce drying out. The risk of overcooking
these meats however is fairly large.
Larger pieces of meat, or very tough pieces of meat should be cooked for much monger times at much
lower temperatures, to ensure complete collagen breakdown without temperatures being sufficiently
high t cause significant drying out of the meat. Such cuts of heat can be first heated to a very high
temperature, to kill bacteria and promote Maillard, and then finished off at the low heat. The risk of
overcooking these meats is much less.
V/VII - 1 (of 2)
What we make from culinary ingredients: Ice cream
Ice cream composition
Ice cream is composed of three basic elements – 60 % of ice cream is water molecules, 15 % is sugar
(both added and the natural sugar lactose that is present in milk and cream), and 15 % is fat (provided
by the cream and milk).
Making ice cream
Ice cream is prepared by mixing the milk, cream and sugar in the appropriate ratios, and then freezing
the mixture as rapidly as possible. Freezing will cause the water molecules to from crystals. Due to the
high sugar content of ice cream, one fifth of the water remains unfrozen even after freezing to – 18 C