Continuous cycles of freezing and defrosting:
Ice-cream should not be refrozen and defrosted continuously. Each time the ice cream is defrosted,
some ice crystals will turn back into water. As it is re-frozen, unless the mixture is stirred, the water
present will join those crystals that have survived, forming fewer bigger crystals. This gives the icecream
a less favourable texture.
New ways of making ice cream
Ice creams and sorbets are now increasingly being made with a Pacojet. This new culinary tools are
machines that have a small blade that turns at about 2000 rpm, and each turn shaves off a layer of the
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product, and the blade gradually descends. Only one mini cycle is needed to make a portion of ice
cream, and this takes less than a minute.
The Pacojet works by simultaneously breaking down ice crystals to create a smooth texture, as well as
incorporating air as the blade turns. To make an ice-cream with the Pacojet machine, sugar is not
essential, which means that these machines are being used more and more to make savoury ice
Liquids can also be rapidly frozen in liquid nitrogen to make ice cream instantly. Nitrogen is a gas at
room temperature, but it can be made to liquefy if it is highly compressed and kept at very low
temperatures. When this liquid is released, it is very cold (-196°C), and will freeze an ice cream
mixture instantaneously, with an improved texture due to much smaller ice crystals.
The nitrogen will evaporate rapidly on freezing the ice cream so will leave no residual taste.
Safety advices : Because liquid nitrogen is so cold, much care must be taken when using it,
including wearing gloves and safety goggles.
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What we make from culinary ingredients: Gnocchi
Gnocchi is another sort of dough that is composed of a mixture of flour and water, to which eggs and a
large quantity of pre-cooked and pureed potatoes are added, which increase the dough’s overall
The dough formed is well kneaded to denature the flour proteins and allow them to form a network