Crystal – the regular repeated arrangement of ions or atoms
Crystallisation – the formation of solid crystals by the evaporation of the solvent
Density – the mass of particles within a given volume. A more dense matter will sink when placed on
a less dense matter.
Diffusion – the random movement of particles from an area of high concentration to an area of low
Dispersion - a liquid containing evenly distributed particles.
Disulphide bridges – bonds usually found in proteins which form between the sulphur atoms on two
Elastin - an insoluble protein that joins muscle fibres in meat. It is unaffected by heating, and is thus
responsible for the toughness of meat
Emulsifier - a compound that can stabilise fat-water emulsions because it contains both hydrophilic
and hydrophobic parts.
Emulsion – a stable mixture of a fat source and a water source
Enzymes - proteins responsible for catalysing reactions between other molecules. Enzymes included
amylases, proteases and many more
Evaporation – the conversion of a liquid into a gas
Expansion – the increase in volume as particles move further apart
Fermentation - the controlled transformation of a food source by bacteria or yeast, used to produce
bread, wine and sauerkraut.
Freezing – the conversion of a liquid into a solid
Gas – the state of a substance when all particles contained are very far apart and moving very quickly
Gel - a solid like form of a solution containing a gelling agent.
Gluten - the strong and elastic structure formed by the insoluble wheat proteins glutenin and gliadin. It
is important in processes such as bread making.
Gravity – the tendency of everything on earth to be pulled in the direction of the earth centre, in
proportion to their mass
Hemicellulose - a substituted version of cellulose, found along with cellulose in plant cell walls.
Hydrogen bonding – the attraction between a hydrogen atom on one molecule and an oxygen or
nitrogen atom on another molecule due to charge differences
Hydrogenation – the process of adding hydrogen atoms across a carbon carbon double bond to