Молекулярная гастрономия для креативных шеф-поваров (англ. язык) - страница 123

Молекулярная гастрономия для креативных шеф-поваров (англ. язык)

Crystal – the regular repeated arrangement of ions or atoms

Crystallisation – the formation of solid crystals by the evaporation of the solvent

Density – the mass of particles within a given volume. A more dense matter will sink when placed on

a less dense matter.

Diffusion – the random movement of particles from an area of high concentration to an area of low


Dispersion - a liquid containing evenly distributed particles.

Disulphide bridges – bonds usually found in proteins which form between the sulphur atoms on two

SH groups

Elastin - an insoluble protein that joins muscle fibres in meat. It is unaffected by heating, and is thus

responsible for the toughness of meat

Emulsifier - a compound that can stabilise fat-water emulsions because it contains both hydrophilic

and hydrophobic parts.

Emulsion – a stable mixture of a fat source and a water source

Enzymes - proteins responsible for catalysing reactions between other molecules. Enzymes included

amylases, proteases and many more

Evaporation – the conversion of a liquid into a gas

Expansion – the increase in volume as particles move further apart

Fermentation - the controlled transformation of a food source by bacteria or yeast, used to produce

bread, wine and sauerkraut.

Freezing – the conversion of a liquid into a solid

Gas – the state of a substance when all particles contained are very far apart and moving very quickly

Gel - a solid like form of a solution containing a gelling agent.

Gluten - the strong and elastic structure formed by the insoluble wheat proteins glutenin and gliadin. It

is important in processes such as bread making.

Gravity – the tendency of everything on earth to be pulled in the direction of the earth centre, in

proportion to their mass

Hemicellulose - a substituted version of cellulose, found along with cellulose in plant cell walls.

Hydrogen bonding – the attraction between a hydrogen atom on one molecule and an oxygen or

nitrogen atom on another molecule due to charge differences

Hydrogenation – the process of adding hydrogen atoms across a carbon carbon double bond to

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