pasta more intact. The positive ions help establish the protein network to trap the starch more
quickly, further reducing the chances of starch leakage.
5. Similarly, tap water is better than mineral water for cooking pasta, because the ions in tap
water further help stabilise the protein network. Pasta cooked in mineral water can not form its
protein network as quickly so much more starch has the chance to leak out.
6. If pasta is cooked in a protein solution such as stock, less proteins will move into the cooking
water due to diffusion (smaller concentration difference), so the network formed will be
stronger and the pasta will lose less amylose into the cooking water, due to better structured
pasta and reduced disintegration.
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What about adding salt?
Contrary to popular belief, that adding salt to cooking water reduces the boiling point of boiling water
thus cooking the pasta more quickly; the addition of salt has negligible effect on the boiling point, so
does not affect cooking time. However the addition of salt is advised because it helps the pasta protein
network form, and also the salt added flavours the pasta.
Cooked pasta becomes hard and less digestible on cooling because the starch retrogrades and
moisture is squeezed out of the pastas structure.
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More about culinary ingredients: Milk and milk products
It is easier to consider that milk is composed mainly of water and fat molecules.
The water part, or “phase”, makes up the majority of the milk, and contains the milk proteins as well as
many dissolved substances including vitamins, mineral salts, and some sugars, which provide the
nutritious part of the milk. The slightly sweet taste of milk is due to the presence of the sugar lactose,
which is dissolved in the water phase. However if you taste milk, you should be able to recognize that
it is also salty, because of many mineral salts also dissolved in the water phase.
The fat part, or “phase” has a very important function in determining the texture of the milk - it imparts