Молекулярная гастрономия для креативных шеф-поваров (англ. язык) - страница 195

Молекулярная гастрономия для креативных шеф-поваров (англ. язык)

highest temperatures.

This knowledge of the melting points of all the different triglycerides can be beneficial to a chef

because it can allow the spreadability of butter to be altered.

In order to make a butter more spreadable, the presence of triglycerides that melt at low temperatures

must be maximised. In practice this can be achieved by melting some butter, removing it from the

heat, and then leaving it to solidify. If the solid part is removed as it solidifies, we are left with a butter

of low spreadability. The solid part removed in contrast will have a high composition of triglycerides

that melt at higher temperatures. This type of butter is ideal for making puff pastry, where the butter

should be as solid as possible.

Cooking butter:

As mentioned earlier, heating butter to 40 °C will melt it. Heating it more than this would cause the

careful distribution of all the components present in butter (i.e. the fats, the proteins, the

carbohydrates, the water) to be destroyed, and the different components will separate according to

their density. The white foam that collects on the top is air that has been encapsulated by denatured

milk proteins. Below is the layer of fat. Finally at the bottom is the aqueous layer – this contains water

with some dissolved material.

At temperatures around 100°C the butter will start to spit as the water starts to evaporate. Once all the

water has evaporated, high enough temperatures will be reached that milk sugar and protein

molecules can undergo Maillard reactions to produce new aromas and brown pigments. These

changes occur at around 120 °C. Heating further causes the butter to “burn”: the proteins decompose

and blacken giving the butter a carbon taste. Butter is therefore not used for frying, where it would

need to be heated to such high temperatures that it would completely burn.

Clarified butter:

However, butter can be heated to higher temperatures before it starts to burn if it clarified first. The aim

of clarifying butter is to remove all of the components of butter (especially the milk proteins, the

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