Молекулярная гастрономия для креативных шеф-поваров (англ. язык) - страница 233

Молекулярная гастрономия для креативных шеф-поваров (англ. язык)

centre of the meat except by diffusion, which is a very slow process (in a gelatine gel with 1% gelatine,

where diffusion is easier than in meat, because there is no collagenic tissue, diffusion takes place at a

speed of only 1 cm per day). In September 2004, the expression “cooking by concentration” was

dropped from the French culinary curriculum.

The other expression, “cooking by expansion”, was also dropped. This expression referred to boiling

meat, and it is strange that it survived for so long, as any cook can easily observe that meat is

shrinking when boiled.

Moreover experiments demonstrate how wrong this old theory is. It was written, even in recent

textbooks, that, when producing meat stock, meat should be put in cold water, “otherwise albumin

coagulation at the surface, in boiling water, would prevent juices from going from the meat to the

stock”. True or not?

First it should be emphasized that “albumin” is a very old (more than one century) word for what are

now called proteins. It is true that there are some albumins (serum albumin) in blood (and therefore in

meat), but meat cooking is not due to albumin coagulation: the proteins that coagulate are actin,

myosin and others. An easy experiment can be done to check the culinary theory: if it were true that

meat coagulation at the surface, in boiling water, prevents juices losses, then meat put in boiling water

should be heavier than meat in initially cold water. A balance is enough to check this.

Let’s divide a piece of meat into two equal parts, with the same amount of fat in both pieces, and let’s

cook one piece in boiling water, and the other one in initially cold water. Every ten minutes or so, let’s

take the two pieces, dry them rapidly and weigh them. The following curve is obtained:

330 235

311 226

291 218

274 213

259 211

245 210

230 208

226 206

208 205

202 202

201 202

201 0 203









0 100 200 300


Mass/ grammess

Figure 9. The mass of two pieces of meat put either in initially cold or boiling temperature

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