Молекулярная гастрономия для креативных шеф-поваров (англ. язык) - страница 236

Молекулярная гастрономия для креативных шеф-поваров (англ. язык)



(continuous phase)


(gas dispersed into a



(liquid dispersed into

another liquid)


(solid dispersed into a



(continuous phase)

Solid foam

(gas dispersed into a



(liquid dispersed into a


Solid suspension

(solid dispersed into

another solid)

Table 1. The simplest disperse systems (only two phases): some small structures of the

phases indicated in the upper row are dispersed in the continuous phase indicated in the left


Egg white is a solution (of proteins, about 10%, in an aqueous solution) and no disperse system, but

whipped egg whites are foams, as air bubbles are put into the liquid by the whisk. The same whipped

egg whites, plus sugar, dried in the oven, make meringue, which are solid foams. Mayonnaise, with oil

droplets dispersed in the water from the egg yolk (50% of an egg yolk is water) and from vinegar, are

emulsions. Shallots are gels, as they are solids, but made of cells, i.e. systems containing a liquid.

Meats also, are gels, as well as jams or jellies. Egg yolk is a suspension, because it is composed of

granules dispersed in a plasma. And bread dough before fermentation is a solid suspension, because

starch granules are dispersed into a gluten (proteins) network.

However the previous table is not enough to describe the wide variety of dishes. Even egg yolks are

more complex than simple suspension of granules in a plasma, because egg yolk has also a structure,

which can be seen using ultrasonic devices: they are made of concentric layers, because hens

deposits materials at different rates during days and night. One may even count the layers to know

that the hen needs about one week to produce an egg.

Potatoes, also, are more complex than shallots, as the cells, full of water, also contain starch granules.

In this regard, they are suspensions dispersed in a gel!

In order to describe the complex cases (the majority), let’s use the abbreviations : G for gas, O for oil

(by “oil”, we mean any liquid fat, whatever the flavour), W for water (by “water”, again, we mean any

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