ago to make “minus one century old eggs” in putting eggs in acids, e.g. vinegar. After the shell is
dissolved by the acetic acid (and other acids) from the vinegar, the egg slowly coagulates, having
finally (after about one month) a strange texture:
Figure 12. A raw egg in its shell (left) and an egg put in vinegar for one week (right) : the shell
has been dissolved when carbonate reacted with acetic acid from the vinegar.
_ Above we discussed also protein coagulation and showed how denaturation was followed by
disulfide bridges, between denatured proteins, so that a network is made. We called “coction” the
process of cooking without heat. This idea can be used in the kitchen, as the egg white, as well as the
egg yolk, has a “cooked” texture by addition of alcohol: vodka, fruits spirit…v
_ Cooks generally use some “simple” cooking processes, such as putting the ingredients to be cooked
in contact with hot solid, liquid or gas. The liquid can be water (simmering or boiling) or oil (under and
over 100°C), and the gas is generally air (dry or not, very hot or mildly hot); they also use chemicals
(salt, sugar, alcohol, acids) that transform the texture of raw ingredients; and they use waves (infrared,
microwaves); they could use very high pressure, but then do not have today the useful tools for this.
In some cases, they are cooking in two steps. For example, in classical braises, they first heat meat in
very hot air, and then cook in simmering water. In some recipes of French fries, the potato pieces are
put successively in two hot oil baths. Hence the idea of being systematic, by constructing a table with
the simple cooking processes in rows and again in column.vi As the number is simple processes is
about 12, the number of “double cooking processes” is over 100, but only 10 percent have been
tested. New dishes are awaiting their tests.
_ Mayonnaise sauce is well known. It is classically prepared by dispersing some oil in an aqueous
solution made by mixing vinegar and egg yolk. Can we change the ingredients? First of all, the